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definition of "dual controls"



 
 
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  #1  
Old April 22nd 04, 05:55 AM
Lee Elson
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Default definition of "dual controls"

91.109 prohibits some types of instruction without "fully functioning
dual controls". Can anyone point to an FAA source for how this phrase
is defined? While throw over yokes are dealt with in 91.109, what
about dual brakes and rudders?
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  #2  
Old April 22nd 04, 08:04 AM
C J Campbell
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"Lee Elson" wrote in message
om...
91.109 prohibits some types of instruction without "fully functioning
dual controls". Can anyone point to an FAA source for how this phrase
is defined? While throw over yokes are dealt with in 91.109, what
about dual brakes and rudders?


There have been conflicting interpretations from different FSDOs. (So what
else is new?) FAA finally sent a letter to the FSDOs saying that dual
controls means dual flight controls, so dual brakes are not necessary. Dual
rudders would be required. FAA sent AOPA a copy of the "letter of
interpretation." (HBGA 00-08)

http://www.aopa.org/whatsnew/regulatory/hgba.pdf




  #4  
Old April 24th 04, 01:42 AM
Richard Kaplan
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"C J Campbell" wrote in message
...


There have been conflicting interpretations from different FSDOs. (So what
else is new?) FAA finally sent a letter to the FSDOs saying that dual



Related to this, if only "instrument training" is allowed in an airplane
without dual controls, does that include initial instrument rating training?
In other words, a student's first low IMC landing could occur in an airplane
for which he has the only controls?

Yet on the following CAVU sunny morning it would be illegal for the same
instructor/pilot/airplane team to do practice VFR landings?

Does something seem amiss here?

--------------------
Richard Kaplan, CFII

www.flyimc.com


  #5  
Old April 24th 04, 02:58 PM
C J Campbell
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"Richard Kaplan" wrote in message
s.com...


Related to this, if only "instrument training" is allowed in an airplane
without dual controls, does that include initial instrument rating

training?

The regulations are quite clear that this is what they are talking about.
The aircraft must be equipped with at least a throw-over yoke and the pilot
must be at least a private pilot. The same goes for simulated instrument
flight; the safety pilot must either have his own controls or the plane has
to have a throw-over yoke. It is the responsibility of the instructor or
safety pilot to determine whether the flight can be conducted safely --
effectively appointing the safety pilot PIC. So, yes, a pilot's first
landing in low IMC could be conducted in an airplane without dual controls,
but only if the instructor or safety pilot has determined that it is safe
for the pilot to do that.

Now then, if you want to really wonder if the regulations make sense:

What kind of airplane would have a control seat where the safety pilot
seated there does not have adequate vision forward and to each side, but a
'competent observer' seated somewhere else would? It appears that the safety
pilot could wear a hood and log simulated instrument time, too, as long as
there is a 'competent observer' on board. There are no qualifications listed
for the 'competent observer' other than, of course, he is 'competent.' I
suppose you could train your dog to bark whenever he sees an airplane.... I
have visions of the pilot and safety pilot seated in a cockpit with the
windows painted black, while a wing walker shouts down instructions through
a speaking tube.

§ 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain
flight tests.
(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft (except a manned free balloon)
that is being used for flight instruction unless that aircraft has fully
functioning dual controls. However, instrument flight instruction may be
given in a single-engine airplane equipped with a single, functioning
throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and
ailerons when—

(1) The instructor has determined that the flight can be conducted safely;
and

(2) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot
certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.

(b) No person may operate a civil aircraft in simulated instrument flight
unless—

(1) The other control seat is occupied by a safety pilot who possesses at
least a private pilot certificate with category and class ratings
appropriate to the aircraft being flown.

(2) The safety pilot has adequate vision forward and to each side of the
aircraft, or a competent observer in the aircraft adequately supplements the
vision of the safety pilot; and

(3) Except in the case of lighter-than-air aircraft, that aircraft is
equipped with fully functioning dual controls. However, simulated instrument
flight may be conducted in a single-engine airplane, equipped with a single,
functioning, throwover control wheel, in place of fixed, dual controls of
the elevator and ailerons, when—

(i) The safety pilot has determined that the flight can be conducted safely;
and

(ii) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot
certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.

(c) No person may operate a civil aircraft that is being used for a flight
test for an airline transport pilot certificate or a class or type rating on
that certificate, or for a part 121 proficiency flight test, unless the
pilot seated at the controls, other than the pilot being checked, is fully
qualified to act as pilot in command of the aircraft.


 




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